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Fighting Sioux, Lake Calhoun, the confederate flag: When should a name or other symbol be changed — or suppressed?

Courtesy of the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board
No one is hurting anyone in the name of Lake Calhoun.

What’s in a name? That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet. — Juliet in “Romeo and Juliet,” by William Shakespeare.

A name is a word or term used for identification.

Brandon Ferdig

A name is arbitrary. Whether my parents called me Brandon or Brendan or Brayden or Romeo, I likely would be the same man I am today.

But what if they named me Abdul? Ah, then things change because of the meaning we attach to the word. Abdul is symbolic of something  —  a darker skin tone, a certain religion, another geographic region.

Visual symbols themselves are also arbitrary, until they are not. If the Nazis used the “peace” symbol, then today that would be seen by many as the mark of evil.

There is a lot of talk and controversy in the U.S. these days about names and symbols and the need to change them. Let’s start with a couple of recent examples:

On Aug. 30, the federal government ordered that Mount McKinley’s name be changed to Denali. Denali is the term used by the Native Americans in that region. So what’s the big deal? Well, besides the cost to change all the place names on maps and souvenirs, and besides any claims that the process by which it was changed skirted the rules, to most in America tradition may be the biggest hurdle to acceptance, as Mount McKinley is how they’ve always known the mountain. Meanwhile some Ohioans are sore because the name held special meaning  for them since it honored their native son, President William McKinley.

Closer to home, changing the name of the University of North Dakota’s college hockey team, the Fighting Sioux, has been an issue and battle for years. This name has had meaning to the Grand Forks hockey fans who’ve been cheering the squad for generations. More significant, many of the local Sioux wanted to keep the name. But another Sioux tribe didn’t, and their desires won out with the added leverage of the NCAA. Interestingly, the college is trying to find a replacement name, and the plurality of local fans don’t want a nickname at all, opting for “UND/North Dakota.”

In the end, of course, renaming the mountain or the hockey team isn’t that big of a deal. Humans have renamed cities and countries. Is it Myanmar or Burma? The Southeast Asian nation still goes by both names depending on whom you ask. To the Burmese government, it’s Myanmar; to the ethnic Karenni minority from there, it’s Burma. To outsiders like me, either word works because both sounds refer to that chunk of land. Without symbolic meaning, the name is arbitrary.

***

It’s important to understand what a name truly conjures up in people’s minds, because inconsideration or inaccuracy in this regard can lead us to waste time and resources. If there’s an argument to be made to replace a mountain name with a Native word, and to remove a Native word from a college mascot, for the sake of respecting the desires of present-day Native Americans, that seems reasonable.

But then we have the lake in Minneapolis named after a man with racist ideas …

Lake Calhoun is that large, round, iconic body of water in Minneapolis around which people jog, bike, and play volleyball in the summer; and on which they ice fish in the winter. The idea that the word “Calhoun” in Minneapolis conjures up anything other than these and similar images/thoughts  —  that it is indeed named after a politician, let alone one who was racist  —  is held by practically no one. This truth is important in arguing for the significance of making a name change, because if no one knows the name’s origin, if no one holds this association, then changing the name changes nothing regarding symbolic matters of race relations, because “Calhoun” symbolizes only the lake it labels. To virtually everyone in Minneapolis, changing the name would serve only to confuse.

Removing the symbol of the confederate flag makes more sense, because it has been used by people in conjunction with their racist beliefs. Yet even here, America has fallen susceptible to symbolic simplification.

It’s socially appropriate to equate the confederate flag with racism just as most of America does with the swastika. But just a modest amount of global cultural awareness reveals that the swastika is not defined by this one, Western-centric association.

Before the Nazis used the swastika, Native American peoples had — including the Sioux — as a symbol for the sun, the four directions, or the four seasons. And long before the Nazis, Asian peoples had used it in Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism as a sacred symbol of future success. Hundreds of millions from India to Korea still do.

As demonstrated by the swastika, a symbol’s meaning can change. And a symbol can hold unique  —  even opposing  —  meanings concurrently. The Charleston church shooter, Dylan Roof, used the confederate flag to symbolize his racist ideals. To country music band Alabama, the confederate flag held no such connotation.

After the tragedy in Charleston, the response has approached zero tolerance for the confederate flag, even to disallow historical video games about the Civil War. Similarly, there’s little room in America for Eastern interpretations of the swastika as evidenced by New York City ordering a Korean shopkeeper that he can’t sell his swastika-designed earrings.

Still, as symbols for hatred and death, it’s easy to understand why people want to stomp them out.

***

Somewhere in our species’ history, we evolved the ability to attach meaning to an object, picture, and eventually, a word. But more than the word “ball” identifies that bouncy sphere we play with, the ability to symbolize allows small things likes words and logos to encapsulate more meaning than meets the eye or ear. It’s efficient that one arbitrary design or sound can illicit so much. A symbol has the power to make us cheer, cry, or yell. It’s great to feel strongly. Philosopher Joseph Campbell argued this to be the purpose of life.

It’s also important, though, to not forget that symbols by themselves are nothing  —  and that our emotional placement into, and magnification from, them can lead us to dangerous places. Unconscious of a symbol’s effect leaves us susceptible to being led astray — from the benign (brand loyalty), to the severe (fueling our hate). And when used maliciously, words and symbols can help to destroy.

It’s tempting, then, to turn around and symbolize the confederate flag and the swastika as convenient containers for racism. This way, if we get rid of them, we can watch racism follow. Symbols can serve as proxy (symbolic) battles of actual social problems.

For this, we need to find the middle ground.

There is good reason to want to see a reduction in the visibility of the confederate flag, and I think it’s reasonable to suggest that those who use the flag or the swastika in unmalicious ways can temper their use in light of these cultural sensitivities.

But no one is hurting anyone in the name of Lake Calhoun.

In this trend to attack the titles and symbols that represent and cause social ills, we should be careful not to let these symbolic battles replace the ones that matter more and even have us see symbols that aren’t there. Otherwise, we miss taking action to help the ill we hope to improve.

Brandon Ferdig is a writer living in Minneapolis. He writes about social issues, the human condition, and about where (and how) life has taken him where it has — living on three continents. He shares his articles on his blog ThePeriphery.com, paragraphs on Facebook /bferdig, and sentences on Twitter @brandonferdig. You can also reach him at brandon@theperiphery. 

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Comments (10)

  1. Submitted by Mary Dobish on 10/12/2015 - 11:14 am.

    Really??

    “To virtually everyone in Minneapolis, changing the name would serve only to confuse.” Please do not presume to speak for me–a Minneapolis resident who finds honoring the name Calhoun to be repugnant.

  2. Submitted by Colin Dunn on 10/12/2015 - 04:16 pm.

    Change the name.

    Why would people be confused? The lake isn’t going to magically change location. If you continue to use the name “Calhoun” no one is going to have an aneurysm trying to figure out what you mean.

    This issue is about respect. The lake already had a name when our ancestors decided to put a white supremacist’s moniker on it. It’s far past the time to remove Calhoun’s name and restore a more rightful designation. Hell, if they can do it to a 20,000 foot tall mountain, one of the most beautiful natural areas in the world, we can do it to a piddly little lake in Minneapolis.

    • Submitted by John Ellenbecker on 10/12/2015 - 08:54 pm.

      It wasn’t even our ancestors who named the lake

      The lake was named by a surveyor who had been hired by John C. Calhoun – the surveyor was honoring the guy who had hired him. I am sure he did so because he felt Calhoun deserved the honor – as opposed to hoping that Calhoun would continue to employ him for future surveys.

  3. Submitted by Brandon Ferdig on 10/12/2015 - 06:33 pm.

    Disrespectful?

    That’s the disagreement we have, because I don’t think hardly anyone feels disrespected. This is mainly a made-up offense by white people thinking they are speaking up for people of color when the reality is that if you ask 100 people of color in Minneapolis if they are offended by “Calhoun,” 99 will say “What? Why?”

    • Submitted by Wolfram Ruhmann on 10/12/2015 - 09:03 pm.

      I have a feeling you’re making this up. I was at a gathering at the lake in support of changing the name, and almost all in attendance were people of color.

  4. Submitted by Colin Dunn on 10/12/2015 - 10:10 pm.

    I would say people don’t feel disrespected because they don’t know the history. I’m guessing if we started plastering Calhoun’s ideas about slavery and white supremacy around Lake Calhoun, people would become angry very quickly. But ignorance is bliss, isn’t that true? Also, I like your sly little insinuation to white guilt, that shows me you have nothing except the ‘But it’s already named Calhoun!” argument up your sleeve.

    I know this may be shocking to you, but you don’t need to be a person of color to be angered and feel disrespected by white supremacy and slavery. Those are blots on our nation’s history that we should never forget or whitewash and that are still affecting us today. We shouldn’t honor the heroes of those causes by leaving their names on our cities and and our landscape. If you really want to put Calhoun’s name on a local feature, I would suggest the city dump.

    • Submitted by Brandon Ferdig on 10/13/2015 - 01:41 pm.

      But what’s the point?

      Okay, so let’s teach people about Mr. Calhoun. Get everyone to want to change the lake’s name, successfully do so, and then what? Has anything meaningful changed? Are racial disparities helped? Is racial violence curbed?

      No.

      As I wrote, Lake Calhoun is different than the Confederate flag. Curbing the flag’s visibility can reasonably be argued to curb racial violence, because people use the flag as a symbol of their racial violence.

      Calhoun is just a name–not a catalyst for racial injustice. It isn’t even honoring the guy anymore because no one knows the attribution. Plus, any honor bestowed upon Calhoun had nothing to do with his views on slavery. Just like Malcolm X Blvd in Harlem isn’t so named because of his vocal anti-Semitism.

      • Submitted by Colin Dunn on 10/14/2015 - 12:47 pm.

        Change the name.

        Two points: first, it would reflect Minneapolis as a conscientious community and, second, it would show that we take history seriously.

        A conscientious community, I know, sounds like an oxymoron. Most of us just want to get where we are going, do our jobs, whatever. I don’t think most people look too closely at what makes up our city. For Minneapolitans, Lake Calhoun is a great place to go on a summer day. You can canoe or kayak or run or bike around it. It’s part of our shared experience. Yeah, we could take it for granted, not worry too much about what it’s called. The name, really, doesn’t matter to the lake at all. As long as we take care of it, it will always be a wonderful place to relax at. However, with the public debate around the Lake’s name, there is an opportunity here for conscientious action. To say “Yes, this lake has had the Calhoun name for a long time, but now, to respect others who were here before and who are still here now, we can make a change. To respect the black members of our community who were completely disrespected by this man, we can, very easily, change the name of this lake.” I agree with you, I don’t think it would matter too much in the grand scheme of things. But I also think that banning the confederate flag won’t matter too much either, in terms of racism or the racist actions of those who fly it.

        At the end of the day, Minneapolis is, sadly, one of the most racist states in the country when it comes to the educational and economic disparities between black and white, and native and white populations here. I think most of that comes because we simply ignore many of the issues. We go about our business without conscientiousness to endemic racism. This lake offers a small chance to stop ignoring one facet of that and make a change.

        • Submitted by Brandon Ferdig on 10/15/2015 - 08:17 pm.

          Let me push it one step further

          I also recognize the racial disparities of the state. I think they occur because our state culture’s struggle to build meaningful relationships between different groups. To compensate, I believe we have a tendency to target racism indirectly (like trying to change Lake Calhoun) rather than hitting it head on with cooperation and relationship-building.

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