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For Minnesota’s low-income college students, chances of graduating depend a lot on which school they choose

Photo by Caleb Woods on Unsplash
Today, the typical Pell grant student’s family makes $60,000 or less per year. A student receiving the full Pell grant — $6,195 — comes from a family making $20,000 or less.

Federal Pell grants are meant to give students who otherwise might not have the financial means to get a college degree a chance to go to school. About a third of U.S. college students receive these grants — which range from $650 to $6,195 per year — to help pay for college.

While that’s a help, it is rarely enough to cover the full cost of college. Many Pell-grant recipients must also take out student loans. They may hope that the higher future income prospects of a college degree will help pay off those loans.

But what happens if they don’t finish school? That is a real risk: For students entering Minnesota schools in 2011, Pell students graduated (within 6 years) at a rate 13 percent lower than their non-Pell peers. That’s the statewide average, though — individual schools in Minnesota have widely varying graduation rates for Pell-grant students compared to non-Pell students, from a 22 percentage-point gap to no gap at all.

That these students are doing better at some higher ed institutions than at others has implications for both their futures — graduating with debt and no degree sets up students for more financial hardship — and for taxpayers, who fund Pell grants.

Added challenges

Congress created Pell grants in 1972 to try to help lower-income students afford college. But as higher education has become more expensive, the grants cover a shrinking share the cost of going to school. Pell grants differ from other federal programs to pay for college because unlike with federal loans, students never have to pay back the money.

Today, the family of a typical Pell grant student makes $60,000 or less per year, said Robert Kelchen, assistant professor of higher education at Seton Hall University in New Jersey. Kelchen compiled the data on graduation rates for Pell students starting college in 2011 that are used in this article. A student receiving the full Pell grant comes from a family making a fraction of that.


“Pell grants are designed to help students from lower/middle-income families pay for college, but the Pell Grant only covers a part of the total cost of attending college,” Kelchen said.

In Minnesota, low-income students can also receive a state grant, ranging from $100 to $11,800, depending on need and the type of institution the student attends. Low-income students also often receive scholarship aid from the school they attend.

But for the majority of students, including many Pell-eligible students, it’s still pretty tough to attend college without incurring any costs. And that can mean taking out loans.

Those loans need to be paid back whether students finish college or not, and for students who don’t finish, lower wage prospects make repaying the loans more difficult.

As lower-income students, Pell grant recipients already face a host of challenges to graduation not encountered by their peers: they may be expected to provide financial support to their family, and they are often first-generation college students without family members who can help them navigate the college experience.

Big gaps

In Minnesota, a Pell student’s odds of graduating vary a lot depending on which school they attend.

The gap between Pell student graduation rates (58 percent within six years for students who started school in 2011), and non-Pell students (67 percent for the same cohort) was 9 percentage points in Minnesota. That’s on par with the gap nationally, according to six-year graduation rate data compiled by Kelchen and analyzed by MinnPost. (MinnPost did not consider schools that had fewer than 100 students in their 2011 class.)

At some schools, the gap was much larger than that average, while at others, the gap was nonexistent.

Graduation rates by Pell and non-Pell students in Minnesota, 2017
The data show six-year graduation rates for full-time students who started school in 2011. Only Minnesota schools with more than 100 students in the cohort, according to the dataset, were included.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, compiled by Seton Hall University assistant professor Robert Kelchen

The Minnesota school with the largest gap in Kelchen’s dataset was the College of St. Scholastica, a private, four-year college with an undergraduate enrollment of 2,500 and its main campus in Duluth. At St. Scholastica, Pell students graduated at a rate of 51 percent, compared to 73 percent for non-Pell students. That 22-point gap was more than double the state and national average and was one of the largest across institutions in the U.S.

“That gap is obviously larger than what we would like to see,” said Ellen Johnson, the school’s vice president for enrollment management.

About a quarter of students that started at St. Scholastica in 2011 were Pell students.

At St. Scholastica, many students come from the Twin Cities or rural Minnesota, Johnson said. Students who put in extra work to help support their family are often forced to focus attention off-campus, sometimes far away.


“While we think we are serving them well on campus, sometimes there’s family pressures that require them to be closer to home,” Johnson said.

The gap between Pell and non-Pell graduation rates hasn’t escaped notice at St. Scholastica, Johnson said. After 2011, the school increased its efforts to raise first-year retention rates — a major predictor of student success — plus offer extra financial aid to students who most need it.

“Graduating on time is very predictive, based on that end of first-year GPA, and so that’s where we’ve put retention efforts, both on the financial side — Pell-eligible or students who need financial assistance … but moreso with student support mechanisms for students who are coming in,” she said.

The school has seen improvement, Johnson said, and expects to see the gap closing as subsequent cohorts come through the college.

According to Johnson, the gap in graduation rates for the cohort coming in in 2012 — one year after the cohort in Kelchen’s data — was 14 percentage points, with a 59 percent six-year graduation rate for Pell students. The rate for non-Pell students was unchanged.

St. Scholastica wasn’t the only school in Minnesota with a large gap: Concordia College at Moorhead, Crown College, Concordia University in St. Paul, the University of Minnesota-Morris, Bethel University and St. Catherine University, each had graduation rate gaps of 16 percentage points between Pell and non-Pell students.

Kelchen also flagged the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, not for having a large gap relative to schools in Minnesota, but for having a bigger gap than most of its peer institutions in the Big Ten. About 22 percent of students who started at the U in 2011 were Pell-eligible, according to Kelchen’s data.

Graduation rates by Pell and non-Pell students at Big Ten schools, 2017
The data show six-year graduation rates for full-time students who started school in 2011.
Source: U.S. Department of Education, compiled by Seton Hall University assistant professor Robert Kelchen

For students who started at the U of M in 2011, there was a nearly 13 percentage-point gap between Pell and non-Pell graduation rates, with Pell students graduating at a rate of 70 percent and non-Pell students graduating at a rate of 83 percent. The average gap among Big Ten schools was 9 percentage points.


That gap has gotten smaller over time, said Robert McMaster, the U’s vice provost and dean of undergraduate education: for the class that started in 2005 and graduated by 2011, there was a 21 percentage point difference in graduation rates between Pell and non-Pell students.

He attributes part of that shrinking gap to a program that gives more financial aid and mentorship to promising students who might need them.

The school also prioritizes giving its own need-based funding to low-income students who are Minnesota residents, McMaster said. Pell students from out-of-state are not eligible for the state grant, so the gap between their total grants and the cost of attendance tends to be larger.

McMaster said for the cohort that started in 2012, the gap between Pell and non-Pell graduation rates had narrowed to 10 percentage points.

No gap

Not all schools have a large gap between Pell and non-Pell student graduation rates.

Many of Minnesota’s small, moderate to highly-selective private liberal arts schools had small gaps or no gap at all in Kelcher’s data, including Bethany Lutheran College, Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Olaf College, the College of St. Benedict and Carleton College.

At Gustavus, a small liberal arts school with an enrollment of 2,200 in St. Peter, Minnesota, Pell grant students graduated at a rate 1 percentage point higher than their non-Pell colleagues. The rates were 81 percent and 80 percent respectively.

Gustavus officials say the school’s tight-knit campus and small class sizes — most classes have fewer than 20 students in them — help the school monitor students’ success closely. About 22 percent of students in the cohort that started school in 2011 received Pell grants.

Making sure students don’t fall through the cracks is a big part of the administration’s philosophy, said Alisa Rosenthal, associate provost and special assistant to the president for diversity, equity and inclusion.

Part of that is making sure students who have gaps between state and federal grants and the cost of attending college get scholarships that help fund school as much as possible, Rosenthal said.

Gustavus has a mentorship program for first-generation students, low-income and underrepresented students.

The school also has a retention committee that looks through students at risk of dropping out of school to try to figure out how to help, said Kirk Carlson, assistant vice president for enrollment management and associate dean of financial aid.

Students can be flagged as at-risk in several ways. Using software that tracks student success, a faculty member who a student has confided in could flag them as needing help with academics or finance. It might come out as the retention committee reviews records.

Rosenthal also hypothesized students’ success has to do with the school’s location — most students live on campus, close to support — and its culture.

“It’s the combination of a data-informed approach to identifying potential risks and risk factors, along with the community commitment,” Rosenthal said.

Comments (6)

  1. Submitted by James Hamilton on 03/11/2019 - 01:53 pm.

    How much lies in the selection process? I suspect those schools with the highest academic standards for enrollment are likely to be those with the highest retention and graduation rates among Pell recipients.

  2. Submitted by Mike Reynolds on 03/12/2019 - 06:35 am.

    This is an important issue–thanks for the reporting.

    It seems significant to also factor in what percentage of the school’s population receives Pell funding. A lesser gap in outcomes may (okay: usually *does*) reflect not just a greater selectivity in terms of academic ability but a much smaller pool of students receiving this aid. Some of the schools on this no-gap list have less than 20% of students receiving Pell. (From what I can see, Gustavus is an outlier — with nearly 30% of their undergraduates receiving aid.)

  3. Submitted by John Gendler on 03/12/2019 - 01:17 pm.

    As a proud Carleton alum, I would have liked to see more love expressed for the school atop the charts. I think much of the Carleton success is due to the amount of support that students, whether Pell grant recipients or not, are given. Yes, wise admission policies help.

    If people want schools to have more students on Pell grants, or other financial aid, they need to financially support those schools with contributions, so the schools can provide the support needed. Sitting on the side and complaining does not get more financial aid to those who need it.

    • Submitted by Andrew Andrusko on 03/13/2019 - 12:18 pm.

      It certainly is easy to champion a private college with an endowment that dwarfs institutions at the bottom. I’m sure that if Carleton had accessible admission requirements instead of being a bastion of ivory tower elitist academics that it would have similar characteristics to those you are attacking as “sitting on the side”.

      I would also think that if the article included additional data to compare and contrast institutions such as student population size, family income, race, gender that would provide an even more interesting comparison to supplant your position that it is merely a matter of giving to institutions.

      In any case, the point of this article is not to focus on ingratiating about rich selective liberal arts colleges but rather about the success of people who are frequently barred from entering those institutions. As such, it is worth mentioning that the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (e.g. those at the bottom) are required to be accessible to all. They don’t have the luxury of denying 75% of their applicants. They enroll the most Minnesota students of color, low income students, student veterans and non-traditional students period. So it would make rational sense that those institutions would have more Pell Grant students and more students who may struggle to graduate. We agree that those students need more support. But that should come from the state Legislature; not solely from wealthy alumni.

  4. Submitted by Andrew Andrusko on 03/14/2019 - 07:29 am.

    When I look at the data reported by Kelchen, I see the very clear case as to why the Minnesota State system should be funded at a higher level: there exists a very large achievement gap between the University of Minnesota and the State universities that mirrors discussions in the K-12 realm. When the public spends ~$3,000-4,000 less per student at a state university compared to the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities these are the clear results.

  5. Submitted by Dennis Wagner on 03/14/2019 - 05:06 pm.

    Perhaps, just perhaps, folks should think about using something more cost efficient, lower risk, less prestigious like local community colleges, tech schools etc, to get their feet wet before jumping into the bigger more elaborate expensive mainline colleges. A majority of the credits will typically transfer.

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