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Minnesota is like Kansas — only flatter

Eagle Mountain
Eagle Mountain, Minnesota’s highest natural feature, is higher above sea level than the IDS Center, the tallest manmade building.

ATOP EAGLE MOUNTAIN — It was a recent Friday afternoon when Tami Stagman set out to summit the highest point in Minnesota.

Situated northwest of Grand Marais at 2,301 feet above sea level, Minnesota’s topographic apex is not very tall. It’s called Eagle Mountain, but “mountain” is generous. Though it’s certainly the tallest thing around, it would have to rise twice as high as its roughly 500 feet above the surrounding area to fit most geographers’ definition, technically. It’s more of a big hill.

Just ask Stagman, a Traverse City, Michigan resident who is part of the Highpointers Club, a group whose members summit the tallest parts of U.S. states. They earn pins for progress and hold an annual convention.


Eagle Mountain marked Stagman’s 32nd high point, and not necessarily her most challenging: she’s climbed California’s Mount Whitney (14,494 feet above sea level), Texas’ Guadalupe Peak (8,749 feet) and Maine’s Mount Katahdin (5,268 feet), among many others.

Measuring flat

Though Eagle Mountain pales in comparison to Denali, Alaska’s summit (20,320 feet above sea level), Mount Whitney and Colorado’s Mount Elbert (14,433 feet), Minnesota’s highest natural feature rises higher above sea level than the IDS Center, the tallest manmade building in the state, and significantly taller than lots of other Minnesota landmarks.

Minnesota elevations, compared
At 2,301 feet above sea level, Eagle Mountain rises higher than IDS Center, the Foshay Tower, the Paul Bunyan statue in Bemidji, the First National Bank Building, the Jolly Green Giant in Blue Earth and Sylvia Fowles of the Minnesota Lynx (while standing at the elevation of the Target Center). The bars below indicate ground elevation above sea level.

Minnesota is what you might call vertically condensed. Its lowest point (Lake Superior, at 600 feet above sea level) is less than 15 miles from the 2,301-foot summit of Eagle Mountain, its highest point.

“The state is relatively flat. When you look at our state, the changes in elevation, the most change of course is about 1,700 feet. Total,” said Dan Ross, Minnesota’s chief geospatial information officer.

But how flat is Minnesota relative to other states?

Answering that question is complicated.

That’s something Jerome Dobson, a professor emeritus of geography at the University of Kansas, started thinking about a lot when he moved to the Sunflower State. “Every time I mentioned where I lived, in Kansas, people would say how flat it is,” he said.


But it didn’t seem that flat to Dobson, who points out the names of several of the state’s distinct regions explicitly express their non-horizontal characteristics, including the Smoky Hills, Flint Hills Uplands and Red Hills. “Everywhere I looked, I saw hills,” he said. “So I started, I would carry my GPS with me as I crossed East to West across Kansas and see how the elevation changed.”

All the time he’d spent driving across Kansas also got Dobson interested in measuring the relative flatness of states. The question became how to do it: subtracting the lowest elevation from the highest was too simple. For example, Kansas’ highest point is about 4,000 feet in the west, and around 500 feet in the East.

A marker at the top of Eagle Mountain says it's Minnesota's highest point.
MinnPost photo by Greta Kaul
A marker at the top of Eagle Mountain says it's Minnesota's highest point.
“If you took that subtraction, that wouldn’t tell you anything about the internal dynamics of what’s going on,” said Joshua Campbell, a geographic consultant and Dobson’s co-author.

Dobson and Campbell decided to measure the flatness of states in terms of what percent of a state is not flat, flat, flatter or flattest. In 2014, they published their findings in an article, “The Flatness of U.S. States,”  which measured the flatness of states in 90 meter intervals according to how tall the terrain would feel to a person standing and looking around.

Flat states

The researchers ranked the lower 48 according to what percentage was in any of the flat categories. Neither Kansas nor Minnesota is the flattest, but they’re close. Florida takes the (pan)cake, which makes sense given how much of the state is at sea level or near it.

Minnesota is the fifth flattest state, with 47 percent of the state considered flat, flatter or flattest, and 53 percent not flat.

That makes Minnesota flatter than Kansas, and significantly flatter than Wisconsin, the 29th flattest state.

Flatness characteristics of states
States are listed in order of least to most non-flat. Click or tap the column headings to re-sort the table.
Source: Dobson and Campbell, “The Flatness of U.S. States.”

Minnesota is flat because much of it was leveled by glaciers. In the last Ice Age, ending about 12,000 years ago, glaciers rumbled down the state, flattening out the topography.

The flattest parts of the state follow a big arc that goes from the state’s north-central region to the Red River Valley down to the Minnesota River Valley. But the glaciers didn’t leave everything flat, Ross pointed out, showing a MinnPost reporter around an interactive topograpy map of the state.

In Minnesota’s southwest corner, Buffalo Ridge, a big mass where the Missouri and Minnesota rivers’ watersheds diverge formed of a big deposit left by glaciers. It reaches elevations around 1,900 feet above sea level.

Parts of  northwestern Minnesota are characterized by volcanic rock, formed by lava during the Midcontinental Rift 1.1 billion years ago.

Escaping the glaciers’ crush was the Driftless Area, which spans Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois and southeast Minnesota, which explains the topographic variation in places like Red Wing, where bluffs rise hundreds of feet above the Mississippi River.

The adventure

To Stagman, exploring the country’s high points is as much about the journey as it is about bagging peaks. And Eagle Mountain, though modest, gave her a chance to check out northern Minnesota. She’d never been before, despite being from a neighboring state.

Tami Stagman
MinnPost photo by Greta Kaul
Tami Stagman, who is part of the Highpointers Club, atop Eagle Mountain.
“You know what’s interesting is the adventure to get to the high point. Sometimes you’re on a little back road, you go through little tiny towns, you go places you wouldn’t otherwise go,” she said from the Eagle Mountain overlook, which, despite the landmark’s low elevation relative to other high points, offers a nice view of the surrounding lakes and greenery.

When it comes to exploring topography in real life, get off the highway, Dobson says.

“Interstates always choose the flatter route,” he said. “You don’t see the gullies, you don’t see the ravines.”

U.S. high points
Source: Highpointers Club

Correction: A photo on this story previously showed a location near Eagle Mountain. The photo has been updated to show Eagle Mountain.

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Comments (8)

  1. Submitted by Andrew Slade on 09/06/2019 - 01:01 pm.

    Very interesting, thank you!

    One small possible correction. The photo of Eagle Mountain and Whale Lake at the top seems to show the unnamed summit just east of Eagle, not Eagle Mountain itself. I’ve fallen for that before. After making the three-plus miles to the lake, you really want that view to be of Eagle Mountain. If you can find a copy of my book “Hiking the North Shore,” you’ll see virtually the same photo.

  2. Submitted by Dane Smith on 09/08/2019 - 06:53 am.

    Fun piece Greta, love your stuff. But I think this method of analysis misses the fact that both southeastern Minnesota and northeastern Minnesota are “bumpier” and hillier (and in my opinion more scenic) than any part of Kansas. The higher elevation change for Kansas is a function of an almost perfectly flat incline rising east to west. Take a look at pictures of the Flint Hills in Kansas and the country around Lanesboro or the Iron Range hills and cliffs along Lake Superior, and you’ll see what I mean. Kind of reminds me of the efforts I seem to recall a few years back in which Kansas and Texas claimed to have more lakes than us. They were counting stock tanks and reservoirs and small ponds. I’ve seen some very large stock tanks in Texas, but they ain’t lakes!

  3. Submitted by Paul Udstrand on 09/08/2019 - 08:28 am.

    This is one of if not THE most beautiful hikes in MN. The view up there is spectacular, if not particularly lofty.

    The most common approach is from the South, just off the Gunflint Trail, but you can also get to Eagle Mountain from the West. If you’ve done the Southern approach and you’re looking for a little experience you look into that trail. You’ll find it on a topo map.

  4. Submitted by Skye Marthaler on 09/08/2019 - 11:42 am.

    Glad to see my photo being used! I actually took that photo because the so many people were associating Eagle Mountain with the unnamed “more scenic” peak that is east of it. Its a great hike in a beautiful area. Here is the video about the peak from my second visit.
    https://youtu.be/37U-YVM0zPY

  5. Submitted by Tom van der Linden on 09/11/2019 - 01:38 pm.

    Having ridden my bike across Iowa, I know large parts of it are not flat. Study authors came up with a valid methodology to capture that, I think.

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