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Knockin’ on science’s door: How Bob Dylan’s lyrics have found their way into the medical literature

A literature search turned up 213 titles through May 2015 that “unequivocally” include wording from the Minnesota-born musician’s songs.

Last year, several researchers at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden admitted that for the past two decades they had been playfully competing with each other to see how many Bob Dylan lyrics they could sneak into their scientific papers.

Whoever published the most articles with Dylan references by retirement would win bragging rights and a prize: lunch in a local restaurant.

The public revelation of that competition got the Karolinska Institute’s librarian, Carl Gornitzke, thinking: How many other researchers have been quietly doing the same thing over the years? 

So Gornitzke joined forces with two colleagues and searched the biomedical literature for articles that cite Bob Dylan lyrics in their titles. Their findings were published in the BMJ’s Christmas issue, an annual assortment of quirky and fun (but still scientifically sound) studies.

Most popular

The literature search turned up 213 titles through May 2015 that “unequivocally” include wording from the Minnesota-born musician’s songs. (Hundreds of other titles may have been alluding to Dylan’s lyrics, but the references are not clear, say Gornitzke and his colleagues.)

The earliest unequivocal reference belongs to a 1970 paper in the Journal of Practical Nursing titled “The times they are a changin.’ ” It refers, of course, to the title track on Dylan’s 1964 album.

That song/album title is, in fact, the Dylan lyric most often referenced in biomedical papers, appearing 135 times, according to Gornitzke and his colleagues. It’s particularly popular in editorials.

“An ingenious example appeared in the journal Burns,” the researchers write. “The author begins by paraphrasing Dylan, ‘Come editors and authors throughout the land,’ and starts off every passage of the editorial with a quote from the same Dylan song, discussing the force of change and how it is inevitable.”

‘Like a rolling histone’

Second place for most-popular-Dylan-song-title-used-by-scientists goes to “Blowin’ in the Wind.” It appears in the titles of 36 biomedical papers, starting with a 1975 editorial in the British Medical Journal (BMJ’s former title) on the health risks associated with hang gliding. Other Dylan titles used frequently by scientists are “All Along the Watchtower” and “Like a Rolling Stone.”

Creating puns with Dylan’s titles seems to amuse the scientists, as Gornitzke and his colleagues explain (get ready to groan):

For instance, the title of a recent review on epigenetics by Hermanson and coworkers from the Karolinska Institute included the phrase “Like a rolling histone.”

“Dietary nitrate — a slow train coming,” is another example from the Karolinska Institute. This letter ends by referring to the work of Andrew Jones at the University of Exeter: “Therefore, when summarizing our current understanding, we cannot resist the temptation to paraphrase Bob Dylan: ‘We know something is happening, but we don’t know what it is—Do we, Dr Jones?’”

In yet another article from the Karolinska Institute, the authors managed to combine two Dylan references into the title of a review on the generation of neurones from bone marrow cells: “Blood on the tracks: a simple twist of fate?” “Simple Twist of Fate” is included on the album Blood on the Tracks, released in 1975 and widely regarded as one of Dylan’s greatest albums.

There’s also this clever dylanesque title, which headed a study published earlier this year in the journal Frontiers in Plant Science: “Knockin’ on pollen’s door: live cell imaging of early polarization events in germinating Arabidopsis pollen.” It, of course, paraphrases Dylan’s 1973 song “Knockin’ on Heaven’s Door.”

Paying homage

Although scientific papers that cite Dylan’s lyrics in their titles have appeared in some of the most prestigious journals (six such articles were published in Nature, for example), such references aren’t a guarantee that a paper will get professional attention.

In fact, as Gornitzke and his colleagues note, “Dylan articles are cited less than other similar articles.”

The researchers also point out that most of the references in the medical literature to Dylan’s songs have occurred since 1990. They offer several possible reasons for this finding, including this one: “Maybe the explanation lies in the fact that some of the young and radical students of the 1960s who listened to Dylan ended up as medical doctors and scientists and, perhaps more importantly, as editors of journals in the 1990s and onwards.”

“Whatever the explanation, it is clear that Dylan’s rich song catalogue has provided a source of inspiration for medical scientists,” they add.

Although not, I might add, as much as a group of other rock stars from the ‘60s.

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Comments (9)

  1. Submitted by elliot rothenberg on 12/24/2015 - 01:57 pm.

    politically correct medicine

    This is something to brag about? When you are having heart or cancer surgery, would you rather have it from a doctor who knows current medicine or one who spouts current political correctitude emanating from rock performers? Would Bob Dylan himself go to a doctor who can best recite the lyrics of “Satisfaction”?

    • Submitted by Paul Udstrand on 12/25/2015 - 11:52 am.


      Understand the difference between medicine and politics; would you rather a mediocre surgeon who’s a republican or an excellent surgeon who’s a democrat? Doctors tend to be smart people who can walk and chew gum at the same time so what difference does it make if they quote Reagan or Dylan?

    • Submitted by RB Holbrook on 12/28/2015 - 09:22 am.

      Oh, No! Politically Correct!

      There is no end to the contortions conservatives will undergo in order to work in a pejorative “political correctness” reference. Perhaps that’s something for them to brag about.

      Why would a doctor who knows “current medicine” be incapable of knowing the lyrics to rock songs? Who thinks “Satisfaction” is in any way representative of the ” current political correctitude emanating from rock performers?” When did “correctitude” become a word?

  2. Submitted by elliot rothenberg on 12/28/2015 - 12:07 pm.

    Dude II

    I wouldn’t want my surgeon to quote either Reagan or Dylan or any other pol or entertainer of any persuasion. Surgery is stressful enough. Okay, Dude?

    • Submitted by Pat Berg on 12/29/2015 - 10:27 am.

      Did you read the article?

      These are not surgeons spewing quotes at you as you sink into anesthesia-induced unconsciousness. These are researchers who sit behind their keyboards in their offices and have some fun (yes, scientists are allowed to have a sense of humor, too) working these references into scientific papers which are destined for publication in various medical journals.

      That isn’t even close to being the same thing as what you seem to be worried about.

    • Submitted by RB Holbrook on 12/29/2015 - 10:31 am.

      Just to be clear . . .

      You do understand that this article is about quotations in published articles, don’t you? These articles are typically written with some deliberation, while sitting at a desk. It has nothing to do with anyone quoting anyone during surgery.

      Glad to clear that one up for you.

  3. Submitted by Paul Udstrand on 12/30/2015 - 08:51 am.


    It might be a little disconcerting if your doc walks in singing: “Knocking on Heaven’s Door”.

    • Submitted by Pat Berg on 01/01/2016 - 01:58 pm.

      Spew alert!

      You are now required to clean off the coffee that I just spewed all over my screen when I read your comment!

  4. Submitted by Jim Million on 01/03/2016 - 02:42 am.

    Middle Night Notions

    Guys, this is the silliest thread I’ve read on this site. Thanks for taking the edge off 2016 anxiety.
    (personally, I’d go with Lennie Bruce: you haven’t lived unless you’ve – – – – – – – – – – – – -)

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