Three areas of cognitive skills showed the most decline: episodic memory, working memory and perceptual speed.
The American Heart Association recommends that added sugar from all sources be limited to no more than 100 calories a day (about 6 teaspoons) for women and to 150 calories (about 9 teaspoons) a day for men.
A second review found that omega-3 supplements may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and related events (such as a heart attack), but that the benefit is marginal.
Not getting enough sleep was found to be particularly associated with eating more added sugars and more food in general.
They are also less likely to die prematurely of any cause.
The findings are based on data collected during an 18-year period from more than 48,000 British adults, of whom about a third were vegetarians.
Recent studies “have advanced our understanding and offer new insights” into the importance of physical fitness and the kinds of physical activity that are most likely to promote a healthy heart, a trio of cardiologists write.
“The greatest benefits from having a pet were for those who owned a dog, independent of their age, sex and education level,” said Andrea Maugeri, the study’s lead author.
The study’s participants come from four U.S. communities, including Minneapolis.
Changes in the brain associated with dementia can start 15 to 20 years before any clinical symptoms appear.
White coat hypertension is a phenomenon where a person’s blood pressure reading is high at a doctor’s office but normal at home.
Americans’ overconsumption of sugar is considered a major risk factor for obesity and related cardiometabolic diseases, including heart disease, stroke and type 2 diabetes.
Both studies come with important caveats, so they aren’t going to end the often-heated dispute over whether red meat has a role to play in a healthy diet.
The average American gets 145 calories a day — about 6.5 percent of their total daily calories — from sugary drinks.
The study also found that women aged 50 and older who consume multiple diet drinks daily are at increased risk of heart disease and an early death from any cause.
There’s no need to rush to your kitchen to toss out all your processed foods. The increased risk was modest. And the study found only a correlation, not a cause-and-effect relationship.
“This study demonstrates that there is insufficient evidence to recommend routine aspirin use in the prevention of heart attacks, stroke and cardiovascular deaths in people without cardiovascular disease,” said Dr. Sean Zheng, the study’s lead author.
The study’s findings suggest, say the researchers, that people who are newly diagnosed with high cholesterol in late December or January may want to get their levels retested a few months later.
“The effect of bullying and violence on the incidence of cardiovascular disease in the general population is comparable to other risk factors, such as diabetes and alcohol drinking,” said Tianwei Xu, the study’s lead author.
“People may think they need to spend a lot of time lifting weights, but just two sets of bench presses that take less than five minutes could be effective,” says Duck-Chul Lee, the study’s senior author.