Nonprofit, nonpartisan journalism. Supported by readers.

MinnPost’s Minnesota History articles are produced in partnership with the Minnesota Historical Society and its MNopedia project, which is made possible by the Legacy Amendment’s Arts and Cultural Heritage Fund.

125 years ago, deadly ‘Children’s Blizzard’ blasted Minnesota

Courtesy of the Minnesota Historical Society
Nobles County native Morton Bassett: "It was a beautiful day for mid-winter and no one even thought of what a change an hour's time could bring."

The winter of 1887-1888 was ferocious and unrelenting.

November vacillated between ice storms, snowstorms and sub-zero temperatures. December dumped mountains of snow: 20.2 inches in Moorhead, 39.5 inches at Morris, 33 inches at Mankato. Then on Jan. 5, 1888, a massive sleet storm coated the snowy drifts with treacherous ice, putting  scores of restless farmers and schoolchildren under house arrest but for the most essential chores.

Finally, though, on Jan. 12, 1888, the morning came with a gentle reprieve. The air felt mild and fine, and the warm sun teased people out of their frame houses, soddies and dugouts.

“The day dawned bright and clear and every object about the horizon was distinctly visible,” recounted the Jan. 16 evening edition of the Minneapolis Journal.

Carl Saltee, a 16-year-old Norwegian immigrant in Fortier, Minn., remembered that “on the 12th of January 1888 around noontime it was so warm it melted snow and ice from the window until after 1 p.m.”

‘A beautiful day’

Many settlers jumped at the arrival of fine weather. Erik Olson, a Swedish bachelor farmer in Beaver Creek, Minn., took off on a half-mile walk to his strawstack, to get the raw stuff for the twisted-straw sticks he burned for heat. Johnny Walsh,  a 10-year-old farmer’s son in Avoca, Minn., walked a mile to go visiting at a neighbor’s house. Norwegian immigrant Knut Knutson made a run to Rushmore, Minn., for extra supplies.

“It was a beautiful day for mid-winter and no one even thought of what a change an hour’s time could bring,” wrote Nobles County native Morton Bassett in a personal collection of pioneering stories.

What the settlers did not know — could not know, because the Army Signal Corps chose not issue a Cold Wave warning the previous night —  was that a dynamic blizzard was just then sprinting across Montana and northern Colorado. A massive cold air mass had formed around Jan. 8, shifting from Medicine Hat, Alberta, to Qu’Appelle, Saskatchewan. Both places saw violent wind conditions and extreme temperature drops. On Jan. 11, the mass raced full bore across the United States, covering more than 780 miles in 17 hours.

When the storm hit, it caught so many settlers by surprise that between 250 and 500 people died that weekend, according to estimates by newspaper editors in Minnesota, Nebraska, Iowa and the Dakota Territory. A precise number has never been determined, but “undoubtedly many deaths were never reported from remote outlying districts,” wrote journalist David Laskin, author of “The Children’s Blizzard” (Harper Perennial, 2004). Laskin added: “Scores died in the weeks after the storm of pneumonia and infections contracted during amputations.”

The most deadly

Climate historians are quick to note that the “Children’s Blizzard” — so named because many of the victims were schoolkids trying to make it home — was not the most extreme blizzard ever to strike Minnesota. But 125 years later, it remains the most deadly, due to a tragic swirl of circumstances. The storm’s ambush approach in the middle of an afternoon, the lack of warning from the Army Signal Corps, and the mild, January thaw-like morning were all factors that conspired to kill with maximum efficiency.

Minnesota, too, was populated like never before, but many of her new homes and schoolhouses were hastily built affairs at best, with gap-holed walls and tar paper roofs, thrown up in the break-neck excitement of westward settlement.

The storm happened at the tail-end of a six-year run of extreme weather called the “Little Ice Age.” Climate historian and retired state policy analyst Thomas St. Martin of Woodbury wrote in an abstract that a series of phenomena, including the eruption of the Indonesian volcano Krakatoa in August, 1883, created an atmospheric shield against solar radiation that plunged the globe into the deep freeze from 1882 to 1888. In the long gaze of history, the powerful blizzard of Jan. 12, 1888 was a final exclamation point.

For the settlers who lived through it, the Jan. 12 blizzard was not historic but harrowing, a day of extreme trial for a people who already knew hard living. Farmer and Norwegian immigrant Austin Rollag, just over the state line in Valley Springs, S.D, wrote that air turned silent and ominous and in the next moment, the blizzard crashed in.  

“About 3:30, we heard a hideous roar. … At first we thought that it was the Omaha train which had been blocked and was trying to open the track. My wife and I were near the barn when the storm came as if it had slid out of sack. A hurricane-like wind blew, so that the snow drifted high in the air, and it became terribly cold. Within a few minutes, it was as dark as a cellar, and one could not see one’s hand in front of one’s face.”

‘A terrible hard wind’

Carl Saltee, in Fortier, Minn., remembered that  “A dark and heavy wall builded up around the northwest coming fast, coming like those hevy [sic] thunderstorms, like a shot. In a few moments, we had the severest snowstorm I ever saw in my life with a terrible hard wind, like a hurrycane [sic], snow so thick we could not see more than 3 steps from the door at times.”

The Children's Blizzard book by David Laskin
“The Children’s Blizzard” book by David

This was not a storm of drifting lace snowflakes, but of flash-frozen droplets firing sideways from the sky, an onslaught of speeding ice needles moving at more than 60 miles per hour. Even without the whiteout conditions — climate experts call this zero/zero visibility — many people couldn’t see because the microscopic bits of ice literally froze their eyes shut.

In total blindness with few buildings, fences or landmarks to guide them, some settlers became completely and utterly lost. Norwegian immigrant Seselia Knutson became frantic when her husband, Knut, was trapped out in the blizzard. She went out to look for him and became so confused she froze to death under a sled just 40 steps from her front door. Hanley Countryman of Alexandria was trekking back to his house with 40 pounds of provisions and lay down in the snow to die just 150 yards from his threshold.  

Schoolchildren, many of whom had left for school without coats, hats and mittens — the better to bask in the comparative warmth of a January thaw — were overcome by the blizzard. In many places, the storm made its debut just as students were walking back home from school. The air was not only filled with blowing ice, but temperatures plummeted to frightening lows. By the afternoon in Moorhead, it was 47 degrees below zero, and the force of the wind — reported by the Minneapolis Tribune at 60 miles per hour — blew down the wooden tower over the city’s artesian well, smashed windows and snapped telegraph wires.

The epicenter: SE Dakota Territory

The epicenter of the devastation was in the southeastern quadrant of Dakota Territory, now South Dakota. On Jan. 17, the Minneapolis Tribune noted, “It is placing the number of fatalities at a low figure to say that at least 100 human beings lost their lives in dreaded storm within a 50-mile radius of Yankton” [South Dakota].

Though upper Midwesterners lost the most, the blizzard was truly a nationwide phenomena. Ice skating was reported in San Francisco on Jan. 14, along with frozen water mains in Los Angeles. Fort Elliott, Texas, registered a 7-below-zero temperature on the 14th, and for the first time in anyone’s memory, parts of the Colorado River in Texas froze over.  

In southwestern Minnesota, it was the rare farmer who did not lose livestock. A 36-year-old Scottish immigrant named James Jackson discovered his cattle herd just outside Woodstock. His frozen cattle lay in a 10-mile stretch from northwest to southeast, the animals’ collapsed bodies marking the current of the wind. A few of the cows were living — just barely — but when Jackson got them back to the barn and thawed them out, their frozen flesh came off in chunks. This was the high cost of of exposure. German immigrant Wilhelmina Lupke of Hutchinson, Minn., died from a gangrenous infection after her hands and feet were severely frozen.

Near Garvin, Minn., in Lyon, County, the major concern was passenger train that got stuck in the snow before the blizzard hit. A late telegram arrived at Balatan, Minn., warning that a big blizzard would arrive in less than a hour. Townspeople attempted to rescue 23 of the train passengers with horse-driven sleds before disaster, but they didn’t make it in time. Some of the rescued passengers experienced the tell-tale deliriums of prolonged hypothermia.

According to a leather-bound history of Lyon County: “One of the loads was overturned, two or three of the party lost their heads and one man became partially deranged, crying and howling, and in his wildness pulling the robes and wraps from ladies in front of him, saying that he had but a few minutes to live and that he must get warm before he died.”  The rest of the passengers, some 25 people, spent three cold nights on the stalled train with little food.

Even for the lucky settlers who were safe at home, the weekend was not exactly toasty. Newspaperman Charles Morse, founder of the Lake Benton News, recalled his office/apartment in Lake Benton, Minn. “It was astonishing the manner in which this fine stuff would be driven through the smallest aperture. My sleeping quarters were on the second floor leading off a hallway at the head of the stairs. … On arriving home I found the wind had forced open the door and the stairway was packed with snow, and when I reached my room I found my bed covered with several inches of snow which had filtered over the threshold and through the keyhole.”

The children

The most shocking and widely reported deaths were of the schoolchildren. Ten-year-old Johnny Walsh of Avoca, Minn., froze to death trying to find his house. Six children of James Baker froze to death while trying to make it home from school near Chester township, Minnesota. They were found with their arms entwining each other in the snow.  

Compiling a solid count of the dead remains difficult 125 years later not only because of spotty records and missing rural newspapers, but also because many settlers’ bodies weren’t found for days or even months.

Song of the Great Blizzard: Thirteen Were Saved
Sheet music for “Song of the Great Blizzard: Thirteen
Were Saved” by W.M. Vincent

Erik Olson, the Swedish bachelor farmer, was found a mile and a half from his house several days after the storm; only his feet were visible under the drifting piles of snow. O.A. Hunt, a transient peddler who traveled about southern Minnesota, wasn’t discovered until April 1, when enough snow melted away. A German immigrant named Herman Brueske walked to town on Jan. 11, but his frozen body wasn’t found in Renville County for another week. He left behind three children and his wife, Johanna, who was eight months pregnant at the time of her husband’s death. The Minneapolis Tribune macabrely noted that recovered corpses were so solidly frozen they “give forth a metallic sound” when struck.

The loss of human and animal life reverberated in Minnesota for years after the storm. Many survivors wore the physical scars.

“For years afterward, at gatherings of any size in Dakota or Nebraska, there would always be people walking on wooden legs or holding fingerless hands behind their backs or hiding missing ears under hats,” wrote Laskin in “The Children’s Blizzard.”

One result of the storm was that communities large and small — including Fortier, Minn. — invested in new, sturdier schoolhouses for their children in 1888. The longer effects, though, were psychic. For a certain generation of upper Midwestern settler, the date Jan. 12, 1888, rang with as much dark meaning as Dec. 7, 1941, or Sept. 11, 2001, would have today. Everyone had a story of where they were that day.

In the 1940s, a group of old timers organized the Greater Nebraska Blizzard Club to collect and organize survivors’ stories into a single volume. The editor of the book, W.H. O’Gara, wrote in the preface that the club had a very hard time coming up with a word or phrase that would give some inkling of the terror of that day, Jan. 12, 1888. Eventually they settled on this: “In All Its Fury.”

Freelancer Alyssa Ford has written for the Star Tribune, Minnesota Monthly, Experience Life,  Artful Living and several other local and regional publications.

Comments (12)

  1. Submitted by Nancy Gertner on 01/07/2014 - 09:45 pm.

    Every Generation has its Memorable Blizzards

    Every generation has its own blizzards to remember. The worst blizzard I can remember was in the 1960s, when we had no school for one entire Monday-Friday week in southwestern Minnesota. I stayed home in a warm house, and let dad go outside and take care of our farm animals, and move the snow around. So I can appreciate that Governor Dayton cancelled school to keep Minnesota school children home in bitterly cold weather in January 2014. We should use technology available us to make informed decisions that can save lives.

    The late Jake Klotzbeacher of Farmington told this blizzard story with a happy ending that I just read in a new book. Excerpt:

    “I was living with my Uncle John Gulke who served on the local School Board of the country school near Merricourt, North Dakota. Ethel Skoglund, from Guelph, ND was hired to teach.

    In the winter of 1936 – 37, we had at least three feet of snow on the level. People didn’t have the means of opening the roads; snow removal equipment amounted to a horse-drawn road grader. Most townships only had one. As a result, people rarely got to town to pick up necessities like coal, sugar, salt, coffee, kerosene. We were badly in need of supplies. Uncle John and our neighbor, Christ Miller, decided to make a trip to town by sled.

    It was a cold, sunny day and it was eight miles into town. By the time they left town with a half-ton of coal and other supplies, it was 3:30 p.m. and already getting dusk on that county trail. About a mile from home, the sleigh tipped over when a sudden blizzard struck without warning. They couldn’t see anything ahead of them.

    Uncle John had a flashlight which he used to check the weeds sticking through the snow so they knew where the road was. They unhooked the sleigh, and Christ Miller led the horses behind Uncle John. In this manner they plodded along until they got as far as Christ’s mailbox, about 50 yards from the house. There they got a heck of a surprise.

    When they weren’t home by dark, my aunt and I didn’t worry too much. We were certain that they stayed in town. Meanwhile I did all of Uncle John’s chores.

    About 8:30 p.m., Uncle John appeared in the dark. He followed the fence line home from Christ Miller’s place and he told us the rest of the story….

    School had been held on this sunny cold day. At 4 p.m, John Pahl came by sleigh to pick up his children and he asked the teacher, Ethel Skoglund, if she wanted a ride to Christ Miller’s farm, where she boarded. She declined, as it was nice out then, and it was the custom for the teacher to do her own janitor work, like banking the fire with coal to keep a little heat in the school room, sweep up the place, clean the blackboard and erasers, and correct papers.

    About 4:30 p.m., Ethel started home – a distance of a half mile. She hardly got under way when the blinding blizzard blew in. By the time she got as far as Christ Miller’s mailbox, it was so bad she couldn’t see twenty feet ahead of her. “It was like sitting in a bottle of milk,” she said. Ethel was afraid to leave the mailbox in fear of getting disoriented. She felt as long as she stayed by the mailbox, she knew where she was and someone would find her. It was three hours before Uncle John bumped into her on his way home in the blizzard. By this time, Ethel was pretty well frostbitten. Fortunately, the temperature was about 20 degrees above zero so she wasn’t frozen stiff! It was Ethel Skoglund’s good fortune that Uncle John Gulke and Christ Miller didn’t stay in town that January day.

    My cousin Wilbert, a student of Miss Skoglund, hounded her about meeting me. Uncle John invited her to spend the weekend at the family farm. After that, Uncle John let me use his car to take Ethel to movies and parties. I had no money. However, after skinning my Uncle John’s dead cows, I had enough money to purchase an engagement ring for Ethel Skoglund. On April 1, 1937 we became engaged.”

    Jake Klotzbeacher (1912-2003) left North Dakota to serve in the U.S. Army during WWII. Postwar, he settled in Minnesota and served as Chief of Police in Farmington. Jake wrote a book of his memoirs in 1992 for his children and grandchildren. The above is an excerpt from “As I Remember It,” one of the stories recently published in the anthology, “Hollyhocks and Grasshoppers: Growing Up German from Russia in America.” Published in 2013, the book is available from the North Star Chapter of Germans from Russia,—hollyhocks—grasshoppers-book—.html

  2. Submitted by Kristina Halfmann on 01/13/2016 - 10:14 am.


    Beautifully written article! I am wondering about the significance of the photograph and it’s relationship to the article or terrible events. Thank you!

    • Submitted by Todd Hintz on 01/11/2017 - 07:42 pm.


      The photo is of Fort Snelling’s block tower–still standing today. I haven’t found that particular photo in the archives, but it’s definitely from the 1880s and may even be from the very winter this event took place.

  3. Submitted by Beverly Johnson on 01/14/2016 - 02:59 pm.

    Blizzard of 1888

    I enjoyed reading the article about the blizzard. Each person who has a new part of the story makes it more personal.
    I would like to mention that the place referred to as Fortier, MN is actually Fortier township, Yellow Medicine County, MN, which is near Canby, MN. I recognize the name Carl Saltee as being from there. He married a distant relative of mine.
    Thank you for posting the article.

  4. Submitted by Thomas Bird on 12/24/2016 - 10:16 pm.

    “Army Signal Corp”

    blaming on them, in 1887? as if the word from them would have made it to rural Minnesota?

    rather odd, statist point of view . . .

  5. Submitted by Kathryn Adriano on 02/08/2017 - 09:26 pm.

    “Children’s Blizzard”

    Alyssa~. Well-written and most interesting article! I am wondering if this is the same blizzard that Laura Ingalls Wilder and her sister, Carrie, were in. Ms. Wilder wrote an account of a blizzard that came on suddenly while she and her sister were in school. The teacher, with the help of a man who came out to the school, got all the children back to town safely.

    Also, I had an Alyssa Ford in my 5th grade class quite a few years ago. Are you my Alyssa? 🙂
    Thank you for the wonderful read!

  6. Submitted by Mary Finn on 03/11/2017 - 04:34 pm.

    1888 Blizzard

    Thank you for your excellent story. I came across it while researching New York City’s Blizzard of a few weeks later that was even bigger and took the lives of 200 in our city alone with another 200 dead throughout the East coast. Thankfully not as many were children. The people who lived through these events probably never forgot them. Today is the anniversary of the 1888 Blizzard in our city, the blizzard directly responsible for New York City’s decision to abandon elevated lines in favor of subways and to bury our utility infrastructure underground. A serious blizzard is supposed to be hitting on this Tuesday days after temperatures in the 60s. May neither Minnesota nor New York ever experience anything like the black year of 1888 ever again. I took the liberty of posting a link to this story so that interested New Yorkers could see what the rest of the country was going through during the same time period.

  7. Submitted by Dick Roue on 02/16/2018 - 01:10 pm.

    Children’s Blizzard and Six children of James Baker

    Alyssa – I am trying to research an item in your story: “Six children of James Baker froze to death while trying to make it home from school near Chester Township, Minnesota. They were found with their arms entwining each other in the snow.” Can you, or anyone, provide me with information verifying this statement, and give details as to the location? I can find no details in the newspapers from Lake City or Wabasha, or in the Minneapolis Tribune. The only brief item I can find is from the St Paul Globe of January 15, based on a dispatch from Lake City, which states: “In the town of Chester, sixteen miles west of here, six children, on or near the Caner farm on their way home from school yesterday, were frozen to death. Particulars meager.” There was a short item in the January 28 issue of the Sully County Watchman, from Clifton, Dakota Territory: “Chester, Minn: Six children of James Baker, of this place, while returning from school, succumbed to the cold wind, and when found, they were frozen to death” (Sully County is in central South Dakota, about 400 miles west of Chester Township. Clifton no longer exists. It was located about 10 miles southwest of Onida, the current County Seat of Sully County)
    Beyond that, I can find nothing that verifies this story, and that is rather perplexing for a couple reasons: Even amidst all the other stories of the tragedies resulting from this blizzard, something as major as six children from one family perishing out in the middle of a field with their arms around each other in an effort to survive the storm, should be and would be front page news. The other issue, which makes me skeptical, is that the knife edge of this storm, which hit so quickly and so fiercely, would not have reached Chester Township until about 6:00 PM, and children should have been home from school before that time. I find no other reports of children perishing in the storm in Eastern Minnesota.
    There are two Chester Townships in South Dakota. One is in Lake County just southwest of Brookings, and the other is in Douglas County, southwest of Mitchell. Both of those counties would have been in the epicenter of the storm, and the timing of the storm’s arrival would have corresponded fairly closely to the time of school dismissal. I have checked with sources in both of those counties, in the event that location may have been misunderstood in early reports, and people in Minnesota may have assumed that “Chester Township” meant the Chester Township in Minnesota. I have turned up nothing from either of those counties that verifies or refutes the story.
    There is another Chester Township in Minnesota, in Polk County, but there were no schools organized in Chester Township, Polk County until 1891.
    Can anyone shed light on this? I would like to know if this is an accurate story, and if so, where it occurred. Imagine the fear of the younger ones lost and freezing out in the middle of open country, and the sense of responsibility felt by the older ones in trying to protect their younger siblings. There should be a marker placed as a cenotaph in memory of these poor kids.

    • Submitted by aaron michaelson on 06/17/2019 - 01:16 pm.

      Hello Dick R
      Not sure where I read about the 6 Baker kids, but if I remember correctly it was in Chester Township, just North of Fosston, Minn — amd yes, there should be a historic marker placed there

  8. Submitted by Debra Fasano on 04/07/2018 - 11:06 am.

    Children’s Blizzard of 1888

    I am working on my family genealogy and found a family in my history that lost 4 children the year of 1888. At first I thought it was someone’s error. I thought to myself, how could a family lose that many children at once? But then I decided to research the year to see if anything of significance happened in that year. I came across your article and I think the children’s blizzard must be the cause. The family lived in the Noble County, Indiana area. My records show they ultimately had 12 children but lost four the year of 1888. This was a great article. Thank you!

  9. Submitted by trevor howe on 12/05/2018 - 12:47 pm.

    I am reading this for a class project. it is a very good article. for anyone looking to learn about minnesota history i recomend this. it is an important event, from a great site.

Leave a Reply