How a small request kicked off a big debate over skyways and public safety in St. Paul

MinnPost photo by Peter Callaghan
The skyway from Cray Plaza to the 180 East Fifth Street Building.

Julie Bauch once considered herself a supporter of keeping downtown St. Paul’s skyways open early and late.

The general manager of the 180 East Fifth Street Building, a historic office building and event space in Lowertown, Bauch once opposed a request by a nearby building owner to close off the skybridge entrances at 10 p.m. rather than 2 a.m.

Recently, however, she had a change of heart. Her building’s security staff began to see an increase in problems, including people urinating, defecating, vandalizing property and having sex in stairwells and corners, and tenants began complaining that they felt unsafe.

So Bauch took action. “We believe that both staff and the public are at risk of personal harm by the youth and homeless individuals that enter the building via the skyway after business hours,” she wrote to members of the St. Paul city council. “Safety is our first priority and we have commenced closing the skyways at 10 p.m.”

Except, due to a city ordinance, she’s can’t do that. And shortly after Bauch began locking the doors that connect three different skyways to her building, she received a “corrections notice” from a fire inspector who — in response to a complaint — found the doors locked when the city’s skyway system is supposed to be open.

Unlike Minneapolis — and most cities with skyways in North America — St. Paul considers the skyways to be part of the public realm. In return for building the skybridges and connected passages, the City of St. Paul negotiated public access easements. As such, when the council required skyways to be open between 6 a.m. to 2 a.m., building owners had to comply or face sanctions. Only via a formal request will the council consider an exception, something rarely granted.

In March, Bauch made such a request, but it was opposed by city staff and the Skyway Governance Advisory Committee of the downtown neighborhood council. Members of the committee said they understood her concerns, but not her solution. The committee, reported its chair, Andy Flamm, wanted more data to determine whether closing earlier would make any difference in safety or security.

“There was also a sense that if your building closed access early, the troublemakers there would simply move to other buildings, and it is not hard to imagine those other buildings wishing to close early as well,” Flamm wrote in an email to Bauch.

Earlier this month, Bauch’s request was unanimously rejected by the St. Paul City Council. But by raising the issue, Bauch has succeeded in doing something else: pushing building owners, residents, the city and its police department to take another look at skyway security in St. Paul.

The skyway space running through the 180 East Fifth Street Building.
MinnPost photo by Peter Callaghan
The skyway space running through the 180 East Fifth Street Building.

Situation ‘becoming untenable’

The day after the council vote, a private meeting was convened in downtown St. Paul to hear concerns about the problems. Joe Spartz, president of the Greater St. Paul Building Owners and Managers Association, said he got people together to allow them to share experiences. He called it a sounding board.

But having the conversation has raised other concerns. While businesses and residents feel the skyway system in St. Paul is generally secure, some fear that talking about the problems of a few could send a message that the downtown isn’t safe. “The most important point is that Rome isn’t burning,” Spartz said. “Downtown St. Paul, 99 percent of the time is just fine. It’s safe. It’s a very welcoming place.”

Golden Rule Building
MinnPost photo by Peter Callaghan
The sign above the bench reads, “Golden Rule Building; Private seating area; This area is reserved for customers and employees of Golden Rule Building tenants.”

“But at the same time, building owners, businesses and residents have a higher expectation of what safety and general downtown life should be like,” Spartz said. “Other urban areas of our size would say, ‘This is normal, get used to it.’ But that’s not acceptable to us.”

Council Member Rebecca Noecker, who represents downtown St. Paul, sponsored the resolution rejecting Bauch’s request. She said closing parts of the skyway or having differing closing times is not the best response to concerns about safety.

“The last thing we want to do to make our skyways more safe is to close off exits and entrances in what are already kind of blind alleys in the sky,” Noecker said at the council meeting. Instead, she wants to work with downtown organizations, the police and social service providers to respond to problems caused by relatively few people.

But Noecker, who took office at the first of the year, said she considers concerns about safety valid. “I had a number of downtown businesses and residents contact me pretty much right after I took office that things in the skyways are becoming untenable,” Noecker said last week.

Several of the complaints center on the Green Line’s Central Station, where some business owners have asserted problems have gotten worse. That station, in the heart of downtown, features a stair and elevator connection to the skyway system, and it is one of the few obvious street entrances, with most other entrances to the system inside buildings or parking ramps. Like the rest of the system, the Metro Transit-owned tower stays open until 2 a.m.

Several complaints center on the Green Line’s Central Station
MinnPost photo by Bill Lindeke
Several complaints center on the Green Line’s Central Station, where some business owners have asserted problems have gotten worse.

Flamm, who’s been chair of the Skyway Governance Committee of the neighborhood council for about a year, said he’s seen a rise in complaints from both business owners and residents. He also said security costs are going up and tenants are increasingly unhappy.

“The building owners still need to be responsible, but the city needs to pitch in and deal with increasing security needs,” Flamm said.

Still, the neighborhood council feels strongly that the skyways shouldn’t be shut down earlier. Instead, he said, they should be opened up because more people using them contributes to safety.

Minneapolis’ experience

In addition to beefed up policing by St. Paul and Metro Transit police, and an increase in prosecutions by the city attorney’s office for “conduct violations,” Noecker would like to see a social services response. She suggested a St. Paul version of the Downtown 100 initiative in Minneapolis, an effort to identify people causing problems and come up with targeted interventions.

While the Downtown 100 project was primarily a response to crime, Minneapolis also has a social services-driven program that arose out of the Nicollet Mall Liveability Working Group, said Tim Marx, the president and CEO of Catholic Charities of the Twin Cities, one of working group’s co-chairs.

“We wanted to balance the needs of those who want to use downtown streets with businesses who want to attract customers, residents who increasingly want to live in downtown and visitors, who everyone wants to attract,” said Marx.

The program involves street-level outreach to both youth and adults, directing them to services but also making it clear which behaviors are acceptable and which are not. Area shelters in Minneapolis also stay open later in the morning to ease the flow of homeless people onto downtown streets.

No place to go

Marx thinks a similar response could work in St. Paul. He is more than an outside observer; he is leading the campaign to rebuild the city’s Dorothy Day center by creating a new shelter and “opportunity center” near the Xcel Energy Center.

But having more capacity for the homeless and expanded programs for housing assistance and job training isn’t enough, Marx said. St. Paul needs to restore outreach programs that sent workers throughout the downtown to find people who need help. A program that once did that won national awards, but the initiative was halted when funding dried up.

“If people are in the skyways, they may have no place to go because Dorothy Day is still full,” Marx said of the existing center that will be replaced come December. “The key is to have a response from multiple sectors, to have a plan, to have resources and to keep working at it,” he said. He thinks such an effort could improve the situation in St. Paul “dramatically.”

The skyway going past the Twin Cities PBS offices and studios.
MinnPost photo by Peter Callaghan
The skyway going past the Twin Cities PBS offices and studios.

Noecker said she is thinking along the same lines, suggesting the creation of a new group of “welcome ambassadors” who would both assist visitors and provide an extra batch of eyes on the street. She said a response could also involve expanding the mission of the city’s community ambassadors, who are already working with young people both downtown and in some neighborhoods to keep them out of trouble.

Sgt. Mike Ernster, the St. Paul Police public information officer, said officers on the skyway and downtown beats work closely with the ambassadors and try to direct homeless people to services and shelter. 

Noecker said she has heard suggestions for a skyway curfew for young people but said she is reluctant to restrict access to the skyways based on someone’s age or appearance of being homeless. “For the most part, people aren’t causing trouble,” she said. 

Why 2 a.m.? 

What is magic about 2 a.m. as a closing time for skyways, anyway?

The hours emerged from an effort in 2008 to create uniformity for St. Paul’s 30-block system: a way to make the system better used and more predictable. And the longer hours continue to have a strong constituency, especially among the growing number of people who call downtown St. Paul home.

Yet Minneapolis, with private ownership, has varying closing times, though its uniform skyway hours call for them to be open from 6:30 a.m. to 10 p.m. weekdays, 9:30 a.m. to 8 p.m. Saturday and noon to 6 p.m. Sunday — hours that do not appear to harm the vitality of downtown Minneapolis, said Spartz

And even in St. Paul,  skyway hours are not universal. For example, one building at the end of the system, the Metro Square Building, is allowed to stay open only on weekdays and only from 5:30 a.m. to 7 p.m.

While Noecker says she is not opposed to discussing the closing time in St. Paul, she doesn’t want it done in response to “a climate of fear.”

‘I don’t want to shut down St. Paul’ 

Yet Bauch, the general manager of the 180 East Fifth Street Building, is not giving up. City code requires that building owners must eliminate skyway “hiding places”; provide emergency call boxes; adequate heat and lighting; and security via patrols and video during all hours when the skyways are open.

Because Bauch’s building has an unusual configuration, however, “there is no way our security staff can keep an eye on it all,” she said. If they see a problem on a video monitor they would have to run the equivalent of a city block to reach the incident. “I don’t know how much security I’d have to have to keep my building secure.”

“I don’t want to shut down St. Paul,” she said. “But having the skyways open until 2 a.m. is negatively affecting St. Paul.”

Comments (8)

  1. Submitted by William Lindeke on 04/28/2016 - 01:55 pm.

    What’s the future of the skyways?

    First step: stop building more of them

    Second step: Eventually, let’s start taking them down and focus on making the street a great place for everyone. It’s a much more manageable problem than this mess of grey areas, public and private spaces, and public and private security responsibilities.

    I worry that Saint Paul is stuck between a rock and a hard place trying to negotiate keeping vandalism out of private buildings and not recreating the conditions of systematic and/or blatant policing and profiling like the Chris Lollie case from last year.

  2. Submitted by John Mannillo on 04/28/2016 - 04:52 pm.

    Saint Paul skyway hours

    Good story on the Skyway hours. However people have to be careful what they wish for.
    I was the owner of the Pioneer/Endicott buildings in the late 70’s and early 80’s. They were the first buildings to have skyways in Saint Paul. Those were built in 1967.
    The system grew quickly in order to compete not only with Mpls. but more so with the suburban malls and commercial districts that were closer, less expensive , had parking and generally more convenient to the mass exodus of people moving out of the cities.
    In 1985 when I was President of BOMA, I led the effort with Mayor Latimer to open the skyways. The 2 a.m. closing time was established to accommodate the bars and restaurants so customers and workers did not have to walk long distances outside on cold winter nights. The few residential properties on the system clearly benefited as well. Now we have many more residents, more bars and restaurants and far less parking. We still have cold winters.
    If you take the BOMA Market Report (which I also stated in 1995) and average the asking rental rates from all the office buildings on the skyway system in 2008 (when I again led a group of residents to push the City Council to maintain the uniform hours) those rental rates were $5.00 more per foot than those buildings not on the system. An average skyway building is 300,000 square feet. It therefore generates an additional $1,500,000 every year. It would be awfully shortsighted not to spend the additional cost for adequate security for most any building. Security is also their responsibility by contract with the City. The City paid over $50 million in current dollars for those skyway bridges. Next you can start to add the value of the system for residential properties.
    We need to step back and gain a little perspective.

    • Submitted by Matthew Steele on 04/29/2016 - 09:56 am.

      Perilous implied causation

      There may be correlation between skyway connectivity and average rents > average property values > average property tax receipts. But I struggle to believe there is the causation you imply. There are many confounding variables:
      – Do skyways connect to buildings that are more valuable (due to other factors? clustering effect? Relative proximity to the nucleus of the CBD? etc).
      – Are buildings with skyways inherently more valuable, or is it due to decreased value of their competition without skyway links? (In this sense, having a minority of skyway-connected buildings could have, in essence, caused relative decrease in rents, property value, and tax receipts for the majority of buildings downtown that are smaller and that lack skyway links).

      Of course this is all moot anyways, because in Minnesota cities set their levy capacity irrespective of the value of tax base, so even if that hypothetical $1.5m in marginal-tax-receipts-per-building-due-to-skyway-connectivity didn’t exist, the City of St. Paul would collect the exact same amount of property tax revenue.

      Furthermore, there’s plenty of evidence to suggest that the hollowing-out of Downtown St. Paul in the second half of the Twentieth Century was the biggest mistake in the city’s history – and skyways definitely were a contributing factor. St. Paul (and by no means just St. Paul – my own Minneapolis was even more guilty) saw their destiny during these dark decades as competing with the suburban office park or the suburban shopping mall on the suburbs’ terms… Acres of free/cheap/easy-to-access parking, connected to offices and other destinations by climate-connected habitrails. We literally tore down so much public inhereted wealth – existing building stock – over these dark decades, because hubris led some to the unfortunate conclusion that it was “blight.” And now we see that the true blight is the crater of nothingness between Rice Park and Lowertown, and areas that largely avoided death by urban renewal are now some of the most valuable and beloved places.

      Finally, the implication that skyways produce wealth (which can be captured via tax receipts) is empirically denied when you look at great cities around the country and around the world. Look at a city of St. Paul’s size elsewhere in the world, and it’s easily ten times more vibrant. I remember spending time in Perpignan (FR) or Mainz (DE), both closer to Rochester in population than St. Paul, and both with a much more vibrant center city than St. Paul. Or a couple years ago when I was in Curitiba (BR), about half the size of the MSP metro, but where the urban fabric had lapped even Minneapolis a few times over.

      • Submitted by John Mannillo on 04/29/2016 - 04:22 pm.

        skyway buildild valuation

        There are many variables that effect skyway building valuation as you say. That is why I have used an average to reflect all those variables. The one consistent aspect of this analysis is whether or not the buildings are connected to the skyway system. The value of commercial property always comes down to the income approach. If a property’s net operating income is less, so will its property taxes be less. When it is less other taxpayers throughout Ramsey County make up the difference. Even homeowners.
        The additional income generated by a building is what should help pay for all the operating expenses, including security.
        If you look at the BOMA Market survey, there is an explanation of building grade. The highest rents are generated by “A” buildings. It lists Skyways as being necessary for an “A” building.
        Whether skyways produce wealth and therefore tax base is more accurately analyzed by asking what those properties would be valued at without a skyway connection.

  3. Submitted by David Sullivan-Nightengale on 04/29/2016 - 06:46 am.

    Skyways Were Essential for My Family’s Business

    As someone who spent most of the summers of my youth downtown helping out my family’s cafeteria and vending businesses, I used the skyways regularly to get around town and never felt want for safety. What was even more important was that the skyways were available to my father and his fellow blind vendors to get around town safety. We were able to carry large sums of money to 1st National without fear of being robbed on the way like so many vendors have been on the city streets, and there wasn’t the risk of being run over by an inattentive driver. I remember when the skyways were closed prematurely and seeing a blind resident struggling to get her groceries around a snowbank in the crosswalk.

    The skyways are an important part of our intermodal transportation system. They reduce the number of slips, trips and falls on ice. They eliminate the risk of vehicle versus pedestrian collisions. The reduce the number of people on the streets allowing traffic to move more safely. As a disabled veteran, I’ve been struck twice by Metro Transit buses using my walker; once in Minneapolis and once in St. Paul while crossing with a walk sign! Eventually there will be more quiet cars on the road. It can be a good for the environment and bad thing for pedestrian safety. While the Society of Automotive Engineers is working with the National Federation of the Blind on getting vehicle sounds on all quiet vehicles, it is still only voluntary. One of the selling points of the Twin Cities to host the International System Safety Conference a few years ago were the skyways. Safety experts from around the globe thought our skyway systems were truly ahead of their time. It’d be a shame to regress to the dumb way of doing things.

    • Submitted by Mary Gustafson on 04/29/2016 - 12:07 pm.

      Great Comment

      Thank you so much for this response. I too am part of the community that finds it extremely difficult to navigate on foot on city streets – even in the mall areas that are devoid of car traffic. I fall easily – winter and summer – and the smooth, level skyways are important to my ability to get around. Also, skyways sometimes shorten the on-street walking distance.

      I understand that people who push for on-street activity and access are trying to revitalize and create walkability. I like that idea too. But please don’t believe that walkability on-street in the Twin Cities, or with the long blocks that St. Paul in particular has, is the same as it might be in other cities.

      Finally, what would happen to all of the businesses served only by the skyway now? Would they need to find space at street level? How would that be accomplished with the buildings and space available at this time? Please don’t throw out access for everyone based just on a great theory. It might not work.

  4. Submitted by Matthew Steele on 04/29/2016 - 09:37 am.

    We need less skyways, not more

    Too bad Minneapolis just doubled down by extending the skyway network east to the Vikings stadium.

    Even in St. Paul, where the skyways are essentially a public ROW easement with all the rights and responsibilities that entails, there are still massive problems. Of course it’s harder to police a public realm that’s spread across two distinct levels and systems rather than one.

    Mr. Coleman and Ms. Hodges, tear down those skyways!

  5. Submitted by Carrie Preston on 05/08/2016 - 04:31 pm.

    More security

    I love the skyways. Nothing better than when it’s hotter/colder than he#@ outside.

    Maybe a little more security patrolling the skyway as well as connecting areas like stairwells would help solve the problem.

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